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Click Here.......Class 8 Punjabi and Hindi & Maths  English Language


Class-8 history

1. 1453. turks captured constantinople.

2. 1498: vasco da gama reached india.

3. 1492: christopher columbus reached america.

4. 1519: ferdinand megellan reached east indies.

5. 1750: industrial revolution began in england.

6. 1793: eli whitney invented cotton gin.

7. 1760: england imported two million killograms cotton

8. 1815: england imported fifty million killograms cotton

9. 1840: 250 million killograms cotton imported by england.

10. 1769: invention of steam engine by james watt.

11. 1712: steam engine was invented by thomas newcomen.

12. 1814: george stephenson developed steam engine.

13. 1830: first railway train to carry passengers

14. 1733: invention of flying shuttle.

15. 1764: invention of spinning jenny

16. 1779: in vention of mule.

17. 1785: invention of powerloom.

18. 1793: invention of cotton gin.

19. 1825: invention of weaving machine.

20. 1864: invention of sewing machine.

Chapter 2

1. 1776-1783: american revolution.’

2. 1789: french revolution

3. 1765: stamp act.

4. 1773: boston tea party.

5. 1783: american war of independence came to an end.

6. 1789-1795: period of french revolution.

7. 1792-1815: france was under wars.

8. 1799: napoleon overthrew the directorate.

9. 1799-1801: period of three consulate.

10. 1802: napoleon bacame the consul.

11. 1802: napoleon defeated britain.

12. 1804: napoleon became the emperor of france.

13. 1808-1810: period of glorification of napoleon.

14. 1815: battle of waterloo.

15. 1821: napoleon died in st Helena.

Chapter 3

1. 1861-1865: period of american civil war.

2. 1800: northern states turned to farming.

3. 1840: anti slavery movement.

4. 1852: public feeling against slavery was intensified.

5. 1860: election held in america.

6. 1861: beginning of civil war.

7. 1865: the civil war came to an end.

8. 1863: abraham lincoln delivered a speech at gettysburg.

9. 1809: birth of abraham lincoln.


Geography Class – 8 Ch-3  Migration

Ex-Fill in the blanks:-

1} Internal

2} Push

3} Emigration

4} Rural to Urban

5} Highest


     Match the column:-

A} Pull factor

B} Push Factor

C} Movement of people into a country

D} Movement of people out of a country

E} Political instability and uncontrolled spread of an epidemic

F} Is not migration



A} False

B} False

C} True

D} True


    Answer the following question:-

A} The movement of people from one defined area to another within a country.

B} Nomadic tribes which move from one place to another are not considered to be migrants as they will not settled in the new place and their movement is seasonal.

C} One positive aspect of rural-urban migration is that once these migrants settled in the cities, they send home money that could contribute to the development of their village.

D} The emigration of highly trained or qualified people from a particular area,

E} The repercussions mass migration are:-

 1] Mass migration inversely impact the capital cities.

 2] The crime rate and other social issue have increased due to mass migration.

F} Mass migration has impacts on rural development in a number of ways, including the loss of labour , changes in household age and gender structure and off-farm income.

G} Two reasons for urban to urban migration are:-

 1] Job opportunities

 2] Education

 3] Health care facilities

H} Rural depopulation means that large numbers of working age people migrate from the countryside to earn more money in the city.

I} Identify the push & pull factors:-

1] pull

2] push

3] push

4] pull

5] push

6] pull

7] pull

8] pull

9] pull


   Answer in detail:-

A} Rural-urban migration result in the following three outcomes:-

1] Urban growth which mean that towns & cities are spatially expanding.

2] Urbanisation which refers to the fact of a significant increase in the proportion of people living in the cities in the total population.

3] Rural depopulation which usually means that large numbers of working age people migrate from the countryside to earn more money in the city.

B} Push factors are features of the home area which creates pressure and causes people to move away for ex-persecution, unemployment and poverty.

   Pull Factors operate at places outside of the migrant’s home area to attract a new location for ex- political asylum, a promotion  or high living standards in another areas.

C} The push factors that influence the decision to a person to migrate are as follow:-

1] Unemployment and underdevelopment

2] Poor economic conditions

3] Lack of career development and opportunities

4] Low salaries

5] Political uncertainty

6] Nepotism and corruption

7] Lack of professional competence

D} Pull factor encourage a person to migrate to another country are as follows:-

1] Improved standard of living

2] Employment opportunity with high salaries

3] Extensive resources for research

4] Healthier working conditions

5] Growth in employment with guaranteed development

6] Availability of modern educational systems and schemes

7] Political stability

E} (1) From previous ch.

    (2) Rural-Urban migration occurs within a country. Rural-urban migration is connected with the migration of labour and a career change from agriculture.

   Urban-to- urban migration occurs when a person moves from one urban area to another urban area. Urban to urban move is basically influenced by economic factors.

    (3) Country of origin-

    1] The area benefits from remittances sent back home

 2] Ability to speak foreign languages

 3] There is less pressure on resources such as food and health care

 Host country

1] Migrants take up less desirable, menial jobs

2] The host country can gain skilled labour for cheap.

3] The ‘skill’ gap in many host countries can be filled by migrants

F} Positive impact of brain drain on host country are

1] Highly educated people receive more opportunities in terms of knowledge, Employment opportunities and high wages

2] When individual chooses to return to his home country, he will be well-equipped with ample knowledge

3] Many people send back money to contribute to their household. This earnings increase the economic growth of individual country of origin

G} The negative impact of brain drain on the country of origin:-

1] loss of tax revenue 

2] Loss of potential future entrepreneurs

3] A shortage of skilled worker

4] Loss of innovative ideas

5] Loss of country’s investment in education

6] The loss of critical health and education services


   Learning is fun


5- pull

6- Jhuggi

9- Emigration

10- Immigration

11- Emigrant


 1- depopulation

2- push

3- brain drain

4- migration

7- immigrant

8- refugee

                                         DRAW THE DIAGRAM OF BRAIN DRAIN

Class-8 Ch 3 Three routes which were used for migration

Class-8 Ch 2 population dynamics Map work



Answer the following questions :-

 Ques No 1:- Name the two houses of the parliament?

Answer     :- The two houses of the parliament are :-

1.       Lok Sabha

2.       Rajya Sabha

 Ques No 2:- How are the members of Lok Sabha elected?

Answer     :- The Lok Sabha is known as the house of people because its members are elected directly by the people for a term of five years. The elections are organized by the Election Commission of India.

 Ques No 3: -What is bicameral legislature?

Answer     :- The parliament consists of the president and the two houses of the parliament : The Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha . This system is referred to as bicameral legislature.

 Ques No 4:- Mention the essential qualifications for a person to be a member of Lok Sabha?

Answer     :- (I) He must be a citizen of India

                       (II) He should be mentally sound

                       (III) He should not be less than 25 years of age

                       (IV) He should be an insolvent

                       (V)  He should not hold an office of profit under the government

   Ques No 5:- What is the composition of Rajya Sabha?

Answer     :-  The strength of Rajya Sabha is 245 members, of these 233 are elected by the elected members of the state legislature assemblies. The remaining 12 members are nominated by the president by the president of India from among men of repute in various spheres of life, eg:- science, technology, art, literature and social works.

 Ques No 6:- What are the functions of Lok Sabha?

Answer     :- The functions of Lok Sabha are ?

(i)                  Legislative Function – They pass bills and make laws

(ii)                Financial powers – The house of people controls the treasury.

(iii)              Government expenditure can be made without permission of the house

(iv)              Lok Sabha passes the budgets of the nation

 Ques No 7: - Describe the law making function of the parliament?

Answer     :-  Law making functions of parliament are :-

(i)                  It frames new laws and amends or cancels then

(ii)                If necessary, on all the 99 subjects of union list

(iii)              In certain cases, it can make laws on the subjects of the state list also

(iv)              The parliament along with the state legislature can pass laws on the 47 subjects of the concurrent laws

(v)                The union parliament has the sole right to amend the constitution

 Ques No 8:- How does the parliament exercise control over the government?

Answer     :- The government is directly responsible to the parliament for its act of omission and commission.

(i)                  The members of the parliament can also move adjournment motions. An adjournment motion is tabled when there is an urgent matter that needs the immediate attention of the government

(ii)                The members can ask any question relation to the administration of the state and the ministers are obliged to answer them

(iii)              The parliament can also hold the strings of the government tight by voting a cut in the annual budget


Ques No 9:- Write a short note on Universal Adult Franchise?

Answer     :- Every Citizen which is above the age of 18 years have a right to vote without any discrimination on the basis of gender, cast, colour, creed etc

 Ques No 10:- Mention the significance of Secret Ballot?

Answer       :- A system of election where the choice of candidate is not revealed.

 Tick the Correct Answer:-

1.       (d)

2.       (b)

3.       (b)

4.       C)

5.       (a)

Fill in the Blanks :-

1.       Secret

2.       25 Years

3.       552

4.       Upper

5.       12

Match the following

1.       2

2.       4

3.       5

4.       1

5.       3

 State True or False

1.       T

2.       T

3.       T

4.       T



Choose the correct options-






 Fill in the blanks-

1) unsaturated solution

2) polar

3) suspension

4) FeSO4

5) Temporary


1) True

2)False(Anhydrous copper ll sulphate is not crystalline, but its pentahydrate is crystalline)

3)False(Soft water is suitable for washing clothes)




1Q- Why is water called a universal solvent?

Ans- Water is called as a universal solvent because it dissolves more solutes than any other solvent does.

 2Q- What are the following called?

Ans- 1) A homogeneous mixture of one or more solutes with a solvent- solution

2)A solution that can dissolve more solute at a given temperature- unsaturated solution

3)A solution that contains the maximum amount of the solute it can dissolve at a given temperature- saturated solution

 3Q- Define a suspension. Give an example.

Ans- A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture of one or more dispersed phase in a dispersion medium.eg- muddy water.

 4Q- What do u mean by a colloid? Give an example.

Ans- A colloid is a homogeneous mixture of one or more dispersed phase in a dispersed medium.eg- milk.

 5Q- What are the sizes of the dispersed particles in a solution, suspension and colloid?

Ans- In solution- less than 1nm

        In colloid- between 1nm and 1000nm

        In suspension- more than 1000nm

 6Q- What do you mean by hard water and soft water?

Ans- Soft water- Water that easily lathers with soap is called soft water.

Hard water- Water that does not easily lathers with soap is called hard water.

 7Q- Name the substances that causes temporary hardness of water.

Ans- Calcium bicarbonate and magnesium bicarbonate.

 8Q- Name the substances that causes permanent hardness of water.

Ans- Calcium sulphate and magnesium sulphate.

 9Q- Mention that name with formula of a substance that can remove permanent hardness of water.

Ans- Hydrated sodium carbonate

      (Please write formula from the book)

 10Q- What is formed when sodium oxide is mixed with water?

Ans- It will form sodium hydroxide.


1Q- Compare the properties of a solution with those of suspension and a colloid.






Type of mixture




Settling of dispersed particles

Do not settle

Do not settle


Behaviour towards light




Size of dispersed particles

Less than 1nm

Between 1nm and 1000nm

More than 1000nm


Salt solution


Muddy water


 2Q- What do u mean by water of crystallization? Describe an experiment to show that the water molecules on a hydrate form a part of the crystalline structure.

Ans- The water molecules associated with a substance in a crystal and forming a part of the crystalline structure are together referred to as water of crystallization.

 ACTIVITY- Take few crystals of blue vitriol in a dry test tube and heat gently. You will observe that-

1)the salt will slowly lose its blue colour, turning white.

2)the crystals will crumble down to a powdery substance.

3)some colourless liquid drops will be collected in the colder parts of test tube.


 Now if we cool the white powdery substance and moisten it with a drop of water, it will turn blue again.


 3Q- Explain what hygroscopic substances and deliquescent substances are. Give examples and mention their uses.

Ans- HYGROSCOPIC SUBSTANCE-  Substances that absorb moisture from the atmosphere, are called as hygroscopic substances. Examples with uses are-

1) Silica gel- It is a commonly used drying agent to keep air inside the box dry.

2) Sulphuric Acid, Soda lime- They both are used in many scientific works.

 DELIQUESCENT SUBSTANCES-   Solid hygroscopic substances which absorbs so much of the atmospheric moisture that the solid dissolves in it and forms a concentrated solution, are called as deliquescent substances. Examples with uses are-

1) Anhydrous calcium chloride- It is used as a good additive, food preservative, etc.

2) Anhydrous magnesium chloride- It is used in medicines as a source of magnesium ions.

3) Sodium hydroxide- It is used in manufacturing of soap, plastic wraps, etc


 4Q- Distinguish between hard water and soft water. Why is it necessary to remove the hardness of water and how it can be removed?

Ans- SOFT WATER- Water that lathers easily with soap is called soft water.

HARD WATER-  Water that does not lathers easily with soap is called hard water.

 It is necessary to soften water because-

1)Hard water is unfit for most domestic and industrial purposes.

2)Hard water is not very suitable for bathing.

3)It is not possible to properly cook foodstuff like pulses in hard water.

 Hardness of water can be removed by the following ways-

1) Boiling.

2) Treating with washing soda.

  5Q- Discuss the action of sodium and calcium on water.

Ans- Action of sodium of water-

Sodium reacts vigorously with water to form sodium hydroxide and liberates hydrogen. This reaction is highly exothermic that the metal melts to form a globule.

 Sodium + water -----> sodium hydroxide + hydrogen    

 Action of calcium in water-

Calcium is heavier than water,so a piece of this metal sinks in it. The evolution of hydrogen gas starts briskly with the formation of calcium hydroxide which makes the solution turbid.

Calcium + water ------> calcium hydroxide + hydrogen



Chapter - 3

 The American Civil War

 Answer the following questions briefly:-

 Ques No 1 :- Why was the slavery Important for the Southern States?

Answer     :- Slavery was important to the southern states because these states were primarily agricultural with huge plantations like cotton, sugarcane and tobacco. The slaves acted as cheap, convenient and efficient tools for them.

Ques No 2:- Name the states which established the Confederation?

Answer     :- United States and Southern states that seeded from the union and formed the Confederate state of America.

 Ques No 3:- Describe Abraham Lincoln’s role in civil war?

Answer     :- Abraham Lincoln�s (1809-1865), the 16th president of United States, became the president during the most crucial period of American history. He brought the nation to peace and reunion. He struck a death blow to slavery, as he grew in power, he grew in greatness. He served the nation with dedication and devotion. This great man was born in 1809, in a log cabin in Kentucky. He lived a life of hardship doing manual work. He served in ill inois legislature from 1834. He reentered politics in 1858. �If slavery is not wrong�

 Ques No 4:- Why did North oppose slavery?

Answer    :- The Northern states opposed slavery because they did not require slaves as most of the people worked in factories as paid labourers. So slavery was abolished in 1804, in Northern states.

 Ques No 5:- Describe the three main causes of the civil wa

Answer         :- Causes:-

1.    Slavery was the main issue

2.    Anti slavery movements in the north made relations worse between North and South

3.    The southern states wanted no interference by the Federal Government in the states affairs

4.    Question of state rights

5.    Industrialization in northern states

 Ques No 6:- What are the main results of Civil war?

Answer    :-

1.    Nearly all the fighting had taken place on the southern soil, due to which they suffered heavy damages

2.    It took a few decades for the southern states to recover from the wounds of the civil war

3.    Slavery was abolished from the United States

4.    The Federal Government became the supreme authority in the United States

5.    The Civil war speeded up in the economic revolution of the country on an unprecedented scale.

 Choose the Correct Answer:-

 1.    (C)

2.    (B)

3.    (A)

4.    (C)

5.    (D)

 Fill in the blanks:-

1.    Four Years

2.    1865

3.    Industrialization and Agriculture

4.    Cotton and Tobacco

5.    Abolitionists  

6.    Underground railroad

7.    Abraham Lincoln and Separate

8.    Robert Elee and Ulysses S. Grant

 Match the Column

1.    5

2.    6

3.    4

4.    2

5.    3

6.    1

 True and False

1.    F

2.    T

3.    T

4.    T

5.    T

6.    T

 Class 8 History   CHAPTER – 2                                                            


 Answer the following question:-

 Ques:- What do you understand by the Term Nationalism?

Ans:-   Nationalism can be describes as strong feeling of love and loyalty which people have for their own country. Nationalism arises when people share feelings and experiences.

 Ques:- What were causes for the American war of Independence?

Ans:- 1. England had 13 colonies in North America

            2. The people of these colonies were exploited

            3. They paid higher taxes

            4. Start an industry or trade with another country

            5. Inspired by French Philosophers

 Ques:- Explain significance of American revolution?

Ans:-  In 1789, George Washington became the first resident of United States of America. The American revolution is an important landmark in the world history. It Inspired the people of other colonies , Including India to overthrow their colonial masters and showed the path of democracy


Ques:- Why did the French revolution take place?

Ans : - The French people were also inspired by the American war of Independence. It made them ready to fight for their rights and justice


Ques:- What were the results of French revolution?

Ans :-  The results of the French revolution were far – reaching . The supreme rules of the kings ended. It introduces democratic ideas. The greatest effect was that it awakened national feelings.


Ques: - Write a short note on Napolian Bonaparte?

Ans :-   Napolian Bonaparte was born in Costia in a family of Italian origin. He was a strong and ambitious man who had a romantic side too. He rose triangle the ranks of military officers. He was at the heights of his politically and military glory between 1808-1810. He was finally defeated in 1815 in the battle of Waterloo. He was excited to St. Helena Island where he died in 1821.


Give Reason:-

1.     Boston Tea Party : -

Anti – British protests could be seen all over the most prominent protest was the incident known as the “Boston Tea Party”. This was the protest against the new taxes which the British government had imposed upon the colonies, especially the tax         imposed on tea.

2.     Storming of the Bastile :-

On 14th July 1789 the common people attacked the prisons of the Bastile and freed all the prisoners. Monarchy was overthrown, King and Queen executed and a large number of clergy and nobles killed.


Fill in the Blanks:-


1.     Industrial Isation

2.     1776

3.     Imperialism

4.     Capabilities and Workers

5.     13 Colonies

6.     Thomas Jefferson and Tyrannical Rule

7.     U.S.A


True and False:-


1.     True

2.     False

3.     True

4.     False

5.     True

6.     True

Match the Followings:-

Answers :-

1.     7

2.     6

3.     2

4.     8

5.     5

6.     1

7.     3

8.     4

 Tick the correct Answers:-

1.     (d)

2.     (B)

3.     (C)

4.     (a)

5.     (a)

 Class 8 Ch-2 Geography

Population dynamics

Ex:-1 / Fill in the blanks:-

A} Census

B} Developed

C} Density

D} right

E} Triangular

F] Migration

Ex:-2/ Match the following:-

     A] Sparsely populated

     B] Densely  populated

     C] population pyramid

     D] Movement of people from a country

     E] Movement  of people to a country

     F] Most of the population concentrated here

 Ex:- 3 T/F

A}  False

B}  True

C}  False

D}  True

E}  True

F}  True

  Ex:- 4 , Ans the following Ques:-

A} Population dynamics is useful for interpreting survey data, predicting outbreaks and evaluating the effectiveness

    Of control tactics.

B} The number of people living per unit of an area i.e the number of people in 1 square k/m.

C} Two populated areas are:-

  (i)South and south East Asia  (ii) Western and Central Europe

     Two moderated areas are:-

  (i) Central USA (ii) Southern America

D} Excessive Population in a giving geographical area where the number of people surpasses the available              resources.

E} Yes,The available resources are present in abundance and are not completely utilized. This means that the available resources can support a large population without reducing the standard of living.

F} Because the areas of the plains can be easily inhabited. It is easy to construct houses. It is much easier to grow crops.

G} Equatorial regions, Polar regions and Desert regions are sparsely populated.

H} The difference between birth and death rate is known as natural growth rate.

I} If there is low birth rate and high death rate, the population will decrease.

J} literacy is essential for economic development, social advancement and democratic growth of a country. It also influences various other demographic attributes like fertility, morality and economic patterns etc.

Ex:-5  Ans the following in detail:-

A} Pop ulation distribution on the earth is influenced by different factor these are:- (a)physical factors (b)economic and social factor (c)historical factor

(a) Physical factors:- it include topography, climate, natural vegetation, soil, water and mineral resources.

  I) Topography: more people settle in plains because the areas of plains can be easily inhabited. It is easy to construct houses. It is much easier to grow crops.

 2) Climate: People tend to settle in region where the climatic conditions are moderate and there is sufficient rainfall.

 3) Soil: Areas with fertile soil provide land for agriculture. It also increases the produce.

 4) Water: People normally settle in region where fresh water is available

 5) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits are more populated as the availability of minerals enhances the value of a region.

 (B) Economic and socio cultural factors:- These factors include development of industries, good transport facilities, urbanization and government policies.

 (C) Historical Factors:- Many densely populated regions in the world have long history of human habitation.

B} Sparse means thinly disperse means that area has less population. It is understood that the regions which do not support or provide humans with basic necessities are deemed to be low on human population.

 1) Equatorial regions:- The equatorial regions experiences high temperature and heavy rainfall resulting in swampy grounds and dense forests which do not prove to support population growth.

 2) Polar regions:- it is difficult for people to survive in such extreme cold and therefore have less or very negligible population.

 3) Desert regions:- These regions are dry and do not receive enough rainfall for the growth of vegetation.

C} The branch of life sciences that study the size and the age composition of population and dynamical systems, and the biological and environmental processes driving them.

D} The impact of overpopulation on a country are:-

 1) Depletion of resources as consumptions is faster than the rate of regeneration of resources

 2) Population increase leads to overuse of resources such as coal, oil and natural gas,

 3) Rise in unemployment leading to poverty unrest and higher crime rate.

 4) poor health and sanitation condition.

 5) Over population leads to high cost of living.

 6) Extinction of numerous plant and animal species due to climate change


(i) pg-23 defination

(ii) pg 22 defination

(iii) overpopulation pg-23 defination

      Underpopulation pg-24 defination

F} The elements of age and sex are studied together in the form population pyramid. A pyramid shows the distribution of the male – female population of a country at different age groups. A population growing at a consistent rate is expected to form a triangular shape. On the other hand, a more rectangular shape indicates a population that is growing slowly and steadily.

G} Physical factors:- it include topography, climate, natural vegetation, soil, water and mineral resources.

  I) Topography: more people settle in plains because the areas of plains can be easily inhabited. It is easy to construct houses. It is much easier to grow crops.

 2) Climate: People tend to settle in region where the climatic conditions are moderate and there is sufficient rainfall.

 3) Soil: Areas with fertile soil provide land for agriculture. It also increases the produce.

 4) Water: People normally settle in region where fresh water is available

 5) Minerals: Areas with mineral deposits are more populated as the availability of minerals enhances the value of a region.

H} The advantages of underpopulation are as follows:-

 (i) No shortage of natural resources as they are present in abundance.

 (ii) Low population levels as there is no population pressure on a environment.

(iii) Ample job opportunities due to low population.

(iv) Easily available basic amenities such as water and electricity.

(v) Housing and sanitation are easily available.

 The only disadvantage of underpopulation is the lack of human resources leading to shortage of labour

Ex-6 Learning is fun:-














 10- REFUGEE                           

Draw the diagram of population pyramid


Class 8 English Language

Topic: Format of an email

To        (email address in small letters, without space)


Opening sentence


Closing sentence


Example of an e-mail


Question: Your school is hosting an inter school debate competition write an email to the principal of of neighbouring school informing her of the event and requesting her to send a team to participate in the competition.




Inter school Debate competition.

Dear madam,

Our school is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year . As  part of the celebrations we are hosting a series of competition and we are beginning with 'war of words' an inter school debate competition.

It will be held on 20th July 2020 from 9 a.m. till 12 noon in the auditorium hall of Little flower Convent school, Dinanagar.

Please do send your senior debating team to participate in the event.

The topic will be given to the participants an hour before the start of the competition. They may bring their laptops for use during the preparation time.

we look forward to your school's participation in the competition.


 Thanking you

Yours faithfully,

Atul Sharma

Head boy.

 An example of Notice writing

Question: your school is conducting and inter class talent search write out a notice to be put up in your school informing students about the event and inviting them to participate.



Inter-class Talent Search


Time:9a.m.to 2.30p.m.

Venue: The auditorium of Little flower Convent school

Interested students from classes 8,9,and10 may Pattregister with the President of the Literary association on or before 3rd July,2020.


Example of related email


Write an email to the Principal of a neighbouring school requesting him/her to send a team of teachers to judge the event.


To.  principalgreenlandpublicschool@hotmail.com.

Subject: Request to appoint judges for a talent search event.

Dear madam,

I am Sharuti Saini student head of the Literary association of Little flower Convent school, Dinanagar.We are conducting a talent search contest for the students of 8,9and 10 . This is to be held on 12th of July 2020 from 9 a.m. to 2.30 p.m.in Music, Art , Dance and Stand-up comedy.

We request you to send a team of three teachers from your school to judge the talent search, EVERY BODY'S GOT TALENT.


Anticipating a positive response.

Yours faithfully,

Shruti Saini

Student head, Literary association

Little flower Convent school.




Question no 1.Write a composition in about 300_350words.(Anyone out of 5 topics.) (20 marks)

 Question 2:. Letter  Formal/Informal(one out of 2)(10 marks)

 Question no 3:  (a) Notice (b)  email (5+5marks)

 Question no 4: Comprehension

(a)word meaning (3marks)

(b) Questions (5)(9 marks)

(C) Summary (8 marks)

 Question no 5:. Do as directed

(a)Fill in the blanks with correct form of of the verb. ( 4marks)

(b)Fill in the blanks with appropriate word (prepositions) (4 marks)

(C) Join the following sentences without using and, but or so.(4 marks)

(d) Transformation of the sentences (8 marks)


Go through the letters to the Editor given in the Grammar book.


Class-8 – physics Chapter 2 – physical quantities and measurement

(A)                   Fill in the blanks:

1.      Volume 

2.      Volume

3.      Volume

6.      1000

(B)                   True or false

7.      False 8. True

9.         False

10.   True

11.   True

(C)                   Tick the best choice

12.    (d) all of these are true

13.    (c) (a)and(b)

14.    (a) sinks

15.    (c) partially floats

16.    (b) balances the weight of that much portion

(17)     Define

1.            The law of floatation: If the weight of the body is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced by it then the body floats in the liquid.

2.            Apparent weight of a floating body: when any object is immersed in water then it appears to lose the weight, this lose in weight is called an apparent weight of a floating body.

3.            Density of a liquid: Density of liquid is the ratio of mass of liquid to the volume of liquid.

4.            Relative density: Relative density of a substance is defined as the ratio of the density of the substance to the density of water at 4℃.

5.            Specific gravity: Density of a substance when compared to density of water is known as specific gravity. 

18. Match the following:

Column A                               Column B

1.   Relative density               1. Number

2.   Sinks in water                  2. Iron

3.   Floats in water                 3. Plastic

4.   Density                            4. gcm-3

Answer in few words:

Q19. How does the density of a fluid vary with temperature?

Ans. Density of a substance decreases with the increase in temperature and increases with the decrease in temperature. Water is an exception to it.

Q20. Describe an experiment to measure the density of a piece of iron?

Ans. An Experiment to measure the density of piece of iron is as follows:

1.Meaure the mass of the iron piece using a common beam balance. Let it be M gram.

2.            Fill measuring cylinder partly with water. Let the level of water be V1 ml.

3.            suspend the given iron piece with the thread and gently immerse the iron piece in water such that no water splashes out of measuring cylinder. Let the level of water be V2 


Ans. 1. Measure the mass of empty beaker using a common  beam balance. Let the mass be M1 gram.

2.   Put the given liquid in a measuring beaker up to a  certain level. Let the volume of the liquid be V ml.

3.   Put liquid into the empty beaker. Measure its mass again. Let it be M2 gram.

4.   Result: mass of the liquid M= (M2 – M1) gram.

5.   Find the density of liquid using the formula:-

Q22. What do you know about the density bottle?

Ans.  It is a small bottle having a plug at its neck. This bottle can store a definite volume of a liquid. Normally the volume of bottle is 20ml to 100ml. The plug has a narrow opening through it. Excess liquid overflows through the hole. The bottle will have the same volume of liquid whenever it is used.

Q23. What is the unit of relative density?

Ans. Relative density is the ratio of same type of quantities so it has no unit.

Q24.A piece of wood floats on water while an iron nail sinks in it. Why?

Ans. A small piece of wood will float on water because the density of wood is less than the density of water. An iron nail will sink in water because the density of iron is more than than the density of water.

Q25. Why does ice floats in water?

Ans. Density of ice is 0.9gcm-3 and the density of water is 1gcm-3 as the density of water is less than the density of water so it floats in water.

Q26. Why does the icebergs floating on the sea water  dangerous for the ships?

Ans. An iceberg floats in sea water with its major portion under the water. Only small portion of it remains above the surface of water. A ship can strike the part of iceberg under the surface of water, damaging the ship.

Answer the following questions in detail:

Q27.  What is density? How is it denoted? Give a relation for the same. Give unit of density.

Ans. The density of a substance is defined as mass per unit volume of the substance.

 Density of a substance is denoted by D. 


Q28. Briefly explain as to how will you workout the density of regular solids.

Ans. Knowing mass M and volume V, density of a regularly shaped substance is given by the

Volume V of the regular solid is worked out by using the standard formula. For example:

I.                Volume of cube = (side)3

II.            Volume of cuboid = length×breadth×height

Q29. Describe different types of vessels for measuring the volume of liquids.

Ans. We make use of different vessels for measuring the volume of liquids.

Measuring cylinder: It is made of some transparent material like glass or plastic. It is graduated in millitre(ml) which increases from zero at the bottom. Measuring cylinders are available in different capacities from 20ml to 1000ml.


Measuring jug: Measuring jugs can be made of glass, plastic or metal. They are used to measure a fixed volume of liquids. These are commonly used by milk sellers, petrol pumps, oil dealers etc.          


Eureka can: It is also known as density can. It is made of glass, plastic or metal. It has opening near its top called spout.     


Q30. How will you find the density of an irregular solids: (1) using measuring cylinder (2) using Eureka can.

Ans. To measure the density of an irregular solids using measuring cylinder follow these steps:

I.                    Measure the mass of the solid using a commom beam balance. Let it be M gram.

II.                Fill the measuring cylinder partly with water. Let the level of water be V1 ml.

III.            Suspend the solid with a thread and gently immerse the solid in water such that no water splashes out of

measuring cylinder. Let the level of water be V2 ml.


 I.                     Keep the measuring cylinder under the spout of Eureka can. Pour water in the Eureka can till it starts overflowing through the spout.

II.                 Wait till water stops dripping.

III.             Remove the measuring cylinder and dry it. Put it again under the spout.

IV.            Immerse the solid gently into the water in can. The displaced water overflows through the spout to the measuring cylinder.

V.                When water dripping through the spout, note the volume of water in the measuring cylinder. Let it be V cm3. Now, measure the mass of the given solid with a common beam balance. Let it be M gram.  Volume of soild = volume of water in measuring


Q31. How will you measure the density of a liquid with the help of measuring vessel.

Ans. 1. Measure the mass of empty beaker using a common beam balance. Let the mass be M1 gram.

2.            Put the given liquid into a measuring beaker up to a certain level. Let the volume of the liquid be Vml.

3.            Put the liquid into the empty beaker. Measure its mass  again. Let it be M2 gram.

4.            Result:  mass of the liquid M=(M2-M1) gram.        find the density of the liquid using the formula:         

Q32. What is density bottle? how will you use it to find the density of a liquid using a density bottle?

Ans. A density bottle is a bottle of known volume which can be weighed empty and then with the liquid, density of which is to be found.

To find the density of liquid using density bottle using a density bottle follow these steps:

1.Take mass of an empty dry density bottle by using a beam balance. Let it be M1 gram.

2.            Fill the bottle with water and insert the stopper. The excess water overflows through the opening of the stopper. Dry the outer body of bottle with wipping cloth. Measure the mass of bottle. Let it be M2 gram.

3.            Empty the bottle. Dry it. Fill it with the given liquid. Insert the stopper.the excess liquid, will overflow through the opening of the stopper. Dry the outer part of the body of the bottle with wipping cloth. Measurebthe mass of bottle. Let it be M3 gram.



Mass of water= (M2-M1) gram

Mass of liquid=(M3-M1) gram

 Q33. What is the differnce between relative density and specific gravity? Discuss densities of three states of matter.

Ans. The relative density of a substance is defined as the ratio of the density of the substance to the density of a standard or reference material may be water. Standard or reference material may be water. Density of water is given a special name called specific gravity. A subsatnce is dense in solid state, less dense in liquid state and rarer in gaseous state.

Q34. Discuss the concept of floating and sinking.

Ans. An object in a liquid, floats if its density is less than the density of liquid. It sinks in a liquid  if its density in a liquid is more than the density of liquid.

Q35. State the principle of floatation. Show that an object floats with its portion more outside the surface of a liquid having higher density than water.

Ans. Principle: If the weight of a body is equal to the weight of liquid displaced by it then the body floats in liquid. Procedre:

1.            Mark I and II on the blocks. Take water in a beaker A and glycerine in beaker B.

2.            Place gently the block II on the surface of water in beaker A and the block II on the surface of glycerine beaker B.



Block I floats  in water with its portion outside the surface lesser than the block II. Result:

1.The density of glycerine is more than the density of water.

2. The density of wood is less than the density of water and the density of glycerine also.

Q36. Discuss various applications of law of floatation.

Ans. Various applications are:

1.   Ice floats in water: one tenth part of ice remains outside the water and the rest inside the water as the density of ice is 0.9gcm-3 and the density of water if 1gcm-3.

2.   Swimming in sea water: The sea water contains salt. So, its density is more than the density of river water. Sea water gives more upthrust to the swimmer than river water.

3.   Floating submarine: It is a special boat which can travel under water. It has water tank these tanks are filled with water so that the density of the submarine becomes more than the density of sea water so it sinks. When these tanks are emptied then, the density of submarine becomes less than the density of sea water, and the submarine rises to the surface of the water.

4.   Sailing of ship: A ship made of iron does not sinks but a nail does. The density of nail is greater than that of water. But, the hollow space of ship contains air. Thus, the average density of ship is less than that of water so it floats.


Q37. The density of a substance is 3.2g cm-3. Express it in kg m-3.

Sol. The density of a substance = 3.2g cm-3

 As we know 1 g cm-3= 1000kg m-3

Density = 3.2×1000 kg m-3

                    =   3200kg m-3.

Q38. A piece of iron mass 500gram has a volume of 64cm3. Calculate the density of iron.

Sol. For a piece of iron, mass= 500g

                                       Volume= 64 cm3

                                                Density= 𝑀



                                                            = 7.8 g cm-3

Q38. A piece of iron mass 500gram has a volume of 64cm3. Calculate the density of iron.

Q39. Find the density using the data given in the table:

(a)          mass of solid

(b)          initial volume of water in measuring cylinder.

(c)           final volume of water when solid is completely immersed in water.







Q40. The mass of empty density bottle is 20 gram, when filled completely with water it weighs 65 gram and 75 gram when filled completely with a liquid.

Find the relative density of liquid.

Q41. Use the following data to find the density of the liquid:

Mass of empty density bottle

Mass of bottle+water

Mass of bottle+liquid





Sol. Mass of empty density bottle = 20g

        Mass of bottle + water = 60g

        ⸫ mass of water           = 60-20

                                            = 40g

Mass of bottle + liquid = 70g

⸫ mass of liquid = 70-20

                           = 50g

If density of water = 1g cm-3

Then, mass of water = volume of water= volume of liquid.

 Chemistry, Lesson- 2 (Physical and Chemical changes)


1)      d- the burning of LPG

2)      a- the changes of the phases of moon

3)      b- sublimation

4)      c-photosynthesis

5)      b- freezing of water


1)      does not changes

2)      chemical

3)      endothermic

4)      water vapour

5)      moisture

6)      increases


1)      false (a physical change is reversible)

2)      false (a chemical change is irreversible)

3)      true

4)      true

5)      true

6)      false (the slaking of lime is an exothermic change)


1Q- What are reversible changes? Which of the two- the vapourisation of water and the burning of paper -is a reversible change?

Ans- The changes which can be reversed, that is the product formed as a result of change can be converted back into its original form, are called as reversible changes. The vapourisation of water is an example of a reversible change.

2Q-What are irreversible changes? Which of the two- the melting of ice and the growth of a plant - is an irreversible change?

Ans-The changes which cannot be reversed, that is the product formed as a result of change cannot be converted back into its original form, are called as irreversible changes. The growth of a plant is an example of an irreversible change.

3Q- Define a periodic change. Is rusting a periodic change?

Ans- The changes which occur again and again at fixed intervals of time are called as periodic changes. Rusting is not a periodic change because it is a chemical change which cannot be reversed or repeated.

4Q- Define a non-periodic change. Is the swinging of a pendulum a non-periodic change? Ans- The changes which do not occur at fixed intervals of time and can occur at any time are called as non-periodic changes. The swinging of a pendulum is not a non-periodic change,but a

periodic change because it repeats at fixed intervals of time.

5Q- Classify the following into desirable and undesirable changes. Ans- (a) the spoiling of food- undesirable change

(b)  the digestion of food- desirable change

(c)   the rotting of an egg- undesirable change

(d)  the decay of a dead animal in open air- desirable change

6Q- Define a physical change. Is rusting a physical change?

Ans- The change in which no new substance is formed and which can be reversed by reversing back the conditions, is called a physical change. Rusting is not a physical change, but a chemical change because a new substance is formed in it and it cannot be reversed.

7Q- Define a chemical change. Is the heating of an electric iron a chemical change? Ans- The change in which a new substance is formed and which cannot be reversed back by reversing the conditions, is called a chemical change. The heating of an electric iron is not a chemical change, but a physical change because after heating it only gets hot and is still chemically the same iron.

8Q- Classify the following into physical and chemical change. Ans- (a) the melting of ice- physical change

(b)    respiration- chemical change

(c)     the cooking of food- chemical change

(d)    fermentation- chemical change

(e)    the evaporation of liquid- physical change

(f)      the sublimation of iodine- physical change

(g)     the dissolving of a solid- physical change

(h)    the burning of coal- chemical change

(i)       the glowing of a bulb- physical change

(j)      the freezing of water- physical change

(k)     the curdling of milk- chemical change

(l)       photosynthesis in green plant- chemical change

(m)  the condensation of water vapour- physical change

(n)    the digestion of food- chemical change

9Q- Define exothermic and endothermic changes.

Ans- Exothermic changes- The changes in which heat is evolved are called as exothermic changes. Eg- freezing of water.

Endothermic changes- The changes in which heat is absorbed are called as endothermic changes. Eg- melting of ice.


1Q- Give two examples to show that the mass of the individual substance (s) undergoing a chemical change is altered. How do these changes obey the law of conservation of mass? Ans- Law of conservation of mass states that matter can neither be created nor be destroyed but can only be transformed from one form to another. The mass of the individual substances undergoing a chemical change is altered,but they do obey the law of conservation of mass. For eg-

1) Burning of coal- When a coal is burnt in air, the mass of the soot, ashes and gases evolved, equals to the original mass of the coal and the oxygen when it first reacted. So, the mass of the product equals the mass of the reactant.

2)Cellular Respiration- It also follows the law of conservation of mass because it arranges the atoms of glucose and oxygen to make carbon dioxide, water and energy. The total amount of mass of glucose and oxygen (reactants or inputs) and the total amount of mass of carbon dioxide, water and energy (products or outputs) is equal.

2Q- State the difference between a physical and a chemical change.




1) A physical change is temporary

1) A chemical change is permanent.

2) A physical change is reversible

2)A chemical change is irreversible.

3) No new substances are formed in a physical change.

3)New substances are formed in a chemical change.

4)The mass of substance does not change in a

4)The      mass      of      individual      substances

physical change.

undergoing a chemical change are altered.

5)Eg- melting of ice.

5)Eg- burning of coal.

3Q- Discuss an example to show that physical and chemical changes can occur together. Ans- Physical and chemical changes can occur together. This can be proved by taking the example of burning of a candle. When a candle burns, following changes occur-

Physical change- the wax under the wick gets heated and melts. The molten wax flows down and solidifies. Thus the change in state is from solid to liquid and again from liquid to solid, which are physical changes.

Chemical change- a part of the molten wax vaporizes and burns to form new substances, carbon dioxide and water vapour. This change is irreversible. So burning of wax is a chemical change.

4Q- Give one example of each kind to show that a change in energy takes place when a physical or a chemical change occurs.

Ans-- Energy changes are observed when a physical or a chemical changes occurs.

1)  Energy changes in a physical change-

Eg-Melting of a solid- When a solid melts heat is absorbed,hence energy increases. Freezing of a liquid-When a liquid freezes heat is evolved,hence energy decreases.

2)  Energy changes in a chemical change-

Eg- Burning of coal- When a coal or wood is burnt, heat and light are emitted. So, burning is an exothermic process.

5Q- Explain why there is an energy change in a change of state of matter as well as in a chemical change.

Ans- Energy changes in change of state of matter-

Energy is always involved in changes of states. Matter either loses or absorbs energy when it changes from one state to another. For eg- when a matter changes from a liquid state to a solid, it loses energy. The opposite happens when matter changes from a solid to a liquid.

                                   energy increases                                 energy increases

         SOLID         LIQUID     GAS

                                   energy decreases                                 energy decreases

Energy changes in a chemical change-Chemical changes often involve changes in energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Changes in which energy is released or evolved are exothermic changes, while those that take in heat or absorbs heat are endothermic.

Class 8 English


Ans1) Holmes exclaimed that as the hat was very large so the owner of the hat must have some brain and there were some fine grey hair on the lining of hat. He added that the hat had a fine whiff of lime. With the help of all these facts he made it clear that the man was clever, middle-aged and used lime cream in his hair.

Ans2) Mr Baker came to see Mr Holmes as he had given advertisement in the newspaper about the goose and a hat. So, being the owner of the goose and hat, he came to meet Mr Holmes to take the things back.

Ans3) Mr Holmes watched that the goose seller was shaking his fists at a rat faced man who was whining that the goose was his, Mr Holmes followed that man and said that it might save his visit to Brixton road.


Ans1) Mr Oakshott must have felt very sad as Mr Ryder was her brother and in addition to that particular goose had come from her. Mr Ryder had put the stolen gem into the mouth of that goose. He thought that his sister had reserved the same goose for him and thus hoped to avoid being caught red-handed.

Ans2) Mr Ryder might have been arrested by the police as he did a big crime by stealing the precious gem from the counter of Morcar.

Ans3) 1. Mr Ryder: Mr Ryder was a hotel attendant. He was not a truthful person and moreover he was not sincere to his duty. He stole the gem and blamed the plumber for the theft.

          2. Mr Baker: Mr Baker was the owner of the goose. He was very honest and truthful. He was not responsible for the theft of the gem.

          3. Mr Holmes: He was sincere detective. He was very intelligent, active and devoted to his duties. He always took interest in solving the causes of crime.

         4. Dr Watson: He was the friend of Mr Holmes. He was originally a military doctor who served in the army. He is intelligent but lacks the power of Holmes’s skills of deduction.




Ans3) The poet wants the night to be long so that he does not have to wake up to the harsh reality where he was sad and melancholic.

 Ans4)  A beautiful garden with many flowers- roses, lily-cups and lilac surrounded his house. There was a fir and laburnum tree as well along with swings.

Ans5) As a child the poet was carefree, he had no troubles and could feel happy in the little pleasure of life. Hence the poet says that his spirits flew he was young.

Ans6) As the child uses the swing, he realizes the way birds would feel in the fresh air.

Ans7) When the poet was a child, he thought the trees were tall enough to touch the sky and hence were closer to God.



Class-8  Representation of Geographical Features


1.    Fill in the blanks

(a) Nucleated

(b)            Col

(c) Far apart

(d)            Same elevation


 2.    Match the following

A – 2

B – 1

C – 3

D – 5

E – 4

 3.    Write “T” for True and “F” for false

(a) True

(b)            False

(c) True

(d)            False


 4.    Answer the following questions briefly

(a) Maps that show natural and man-made features with the help of colours and conventional signs (symbols).

(b)                        Contours are lines on a map that join the same height above or below sea level. We always use brown colour to show contour lines.

(c) Spacing of contours indicate the slope or gradient of the landform. Closely spaced contours represent steep slopes while widely spaced contours represent gentle slopes.

(d)                        The common signs including letters that are used for representing various natural and man-made features are called conventional signs. These are universally accepted.

(e)The following geographical features are formed by contours: Waterfalls or cliffs, conical hills, plateaus, ridges, gaps, saddles, cols and passes.

 Important Terms


Settlements are towns and villages where basic infrastructure services like water, electricity and roads are provided.

 Types of Settlements

1.    Linear settlements are settlements where the buildings are constructed in lines, often next to a lake shore, river or following a road.

2.    Nucleated settlements are ones where the houses are grouped closely together, often around a central feature like a church, pub or village green.

3.    Dispersed settlements are ones where houses are scattered over a wide area.

4.    Radial settlements are where the dwellings spread out in several directions from a central point, which is either around a big water body or where many routes join together.

Class 8  English  A Tale of Two Cities

Chapter 2

Exercise : A

Ø Dickens describes the poor men in Streets of Paris as scarecrows because they were in worst condition and starved to death.Their clothes Were ragged badly and were hung on their bodies like the scarecrows in the fields.

Ø It was tough time in France and no one from other countries was allowed to move freely.It was not safe for the native people .Therefore Mme Defarge was keeping a watchful eye in the café on each and everything that was going on so that no stranger could enter.

Ø I listen to the music whenever I feel distressed.It gives me relaxation and comfort. I like to listen music on radio or television.

Exercise : B

Ø Mr Defarge means to say that he used to make a show of Dr Manette to a chosen few . He said that these chosen few were the real men who had the sympathy for humanity, he added that being an English,Mr Lorry could not understand the sufferings of the people of France.

Ø When Miss Manette sat beside Mr Manette ,he took out the ragged string which he had tied around his neck.He unfolded it and found four hair that were as same as the hair of Miss Manette .He was astonished and couldn’t recollect if ever he had met Miss Lucy in his past life.

Ø Dr Manette was having a defeated soul now.He had forgotten everything about his past life and did not even remember his own real name.He could not recognise his own daughter and his friend His body was like a skeleton with thin layer of skin covering it.


                                             Class  8  (Physics)

                                                                    MATTER (25-31)

Q26. Why do wet clothes don not dry easily on rainy day?

Ans. Wet cothes do not dry easily on a rainy day because quantity of water vapours in air is more, so the evaporation becomes slower in damp air.

Q27. Compare evaporation and boiling.

Q28.Tabulate the properties of solid, liquid and gaseos state of matter.







Hard and rigid


Highly fluid



Definite shape and volume

Indefinite shape abd definite volume

Indefinite shape and volume


Very small

Comparatively large

Very large


Closely packed

Loosely packed

Very loosely packed



Very small



Q29. With the help of an activity, describe the phenomenon of sublimatioon.


1.     Put napthalene balls in a china dish.

2.     Invert glass funnel over the china dish.

3.     Plug the stem of funnel with cotton.

4.     Slowly heat china dish and observe,

5.     we will observe that napthalene changes directly into gaseous state, Napthalene thus sublime on heating.

Q30. Define the process involved in change of state due to heating.


       BOILING :- Boiling is the process by which liquid turns into a vapour when it is heated to its boiling point.

       VAPOURISATION :- It is defined as the change from liquid statte to gases stateon heating at particular temperature. Vapour is a gases state of the substance.

Q31. Define the process involved in change of state due to cooling.


       CONDENSATION :- It is a process of changing the gaseous state of a substance into liquid stateon cooling.

       FREEZING :- It is a process of changing gaseous state of substance into liquid state on cooling.


                      Class 8 Biology Chapter 1st'Transport in plants'

 Exercise A Fill in the blanks
1. Diffusion
2. Semipermeable

3. Hypertonic
4. Low, higher
5. Carrier proteins
6. Tracheids, vessels
7. Phloem
8. Phloem fibre
9. Transpiration
10. Lenticels, cuticle
11. Calcium
12. Iron, nitrogen

B. Choose the correct option

C.Match the following

D.Answer the following questions

1.Diffusion is a process in which particles of a substance moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until they are evenly distributed.
For example:
(a)Plants absorb minerals by diffusion.
(b)Diffusion helps in gaseous exchange between plants and atmosphere.
(c)The release of water vapours through the stomata in plants takes place through diffusion 

2.Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
(a)Osmosis is the movement of solvent molecules while diffusion is the movement of particles like solid,liquids and gaseous.
(b) In osmosis semipermeable membrane is required while in diffusion there is direct movement of particles.

3.Active transport is the movement of molecules against the concentration gradient from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This process requires expenditure of energy.

4. Xylem is made up of four type of cells:
(a) Tracheids
(b) Vessels
(c) Xylem parenchyma
(d)Xylem fibres
Phloem also has four types of cells:
(a)Seive tubes
(b)Companion cells
(c)Phloem parenchyma
(d)Phloem fibres

5.Transpiration is the process by which plants release water in the form of water vapour.

6. Transpiration creates transpiration pull which helps in the upward movement of water and minerals in plants.
(a) Transpiration helps concentrate the cytoplasm of plant cells, which helps in osmosis.
(b) It helps distribute water and minerals throughout the plant body.
(c)It helps cool the plant body as a lot of heat is taken up in converting water into water vapour.

7. The three macronutrients required by plants are:
(a) Potassium
(b) Calcium
Micronutrients are:

8.(a) Nitrogen-Yellow leaves and slow growth
(b) Phosphorus-Root and shoot are too short and late flowering
(c)Calcium-Death of tissues and weak stem.
(d)Iron-Inadequate chlorophyll in leaves.

E. Explain in brief

1.Take a large potato peel it and cut off a slice from one end to make it flat.Make a deep cavity within the potato. FIll the cavity with concentrated sugar solution.Stick a pin into the potato to mark the level of the sugar solution.Place the potato in a beaker containing water.After 2 hours observe the level of the sugar solution within the cavity.We will see that the level of the sugar solution in the cavity has risen.Water from the beaker enters a cavity by osmosis and causes a sugar solution to rise.(Diagram is on page no.3 1.4a)

2.If we place a cell in hypotonic solution the cell will get swollen due to endosmosis.If we place a cell in hypertonic solution the cell will get flaccid due to exosmosis and if we place the cell in an isotonic solution there will be no change in the shape of the cell.

3.Xylem cells are of four types-tracheids,vessels,xylem parenchyma and xylem fibres.
(a)TRACHEIDS:These are elongated, tubular cells with tapering ends and thick lignified walls. Tracheids are dead cells.
(b)VESSELS:These are also dead, elongated, tubelight structures with lignified walls. Vessels are made of cells called vessel elements.
(c)XYLEM PARENCHYMA:These aa living parenchymatous cells that help conduct water and also store food.
(d)XYLEM FIBRES: These are dead sclerenchymatous cells that provide mechanical strength to the tissue.
Diagram is on page 5 fig.1.8

4. Phloem has four types of elements:
(a)SEIVE TUBES:These are slender, elongated, tubelight cells placed end to end. Seive tubes are living cells, but they lack nuclei. Sieve tubes have seive plates
through which food is transported between cells and finally to all parts of the plants.
(b) COMPANION CELLS: Thesecells are found beside seive tubes and are connected to them through pores. The cells assist seive tubes in the conduction of food.
(c) PHLOEM PARENCHYMA: These are living cells. The cells store food and also help conduct it.
(d) PHLOEM FIBRES: These are dead sclerenchymatous cells that provide mechanical strength to the phloem tissue. The cells are also called bast fibres.
Diagram is on page no.5. fig.no.1.9

6.Take a healthy, well watered potted plant and cover the pot with a rubber sheet or a larger polythene bag.Place the potted plant in sunlight and cover it with the bell jar to make it airtight.After a few hours we will see that moisture has accumulated on the inner wall of the bell jar due to water vapours released during transpiration. This shows the process of transpiration in plants.

5.The concentration of glucose increases within the guard cells during the day and the drawing water from the surrounding cells by osmosis. As a result they bulge outwards, opening the stomach and allowing water vapour to escape from the underline intercellular spaces. In this way transpiration occurs in plants.Transpiration stops when the stomata close during the night.

The factors that affect transpiration in plants are:
(a) Intensity of light
(b) Temperature
(c) Humidity
(d) Atmospheric pressure
(e) Velocity of wind

7.The active transport of minerals into the root cells increases the concentration of their cytoplasm, does promoting absorption of water by osmosis. The entry of more and more water into the xylem vessels creates an upward pressure called root pressure, which pushes the sap upward in the stem.

8.Take a potted plant and water it well. Using a knife, cut off the stem a few inches above the soil.Fix a long narrow glass tube to the cut end of the stem with the help of rubber tubing. Pour a little coloured water into in the glass tube and mark its level.Pour a little oil over the coloured water to prevent evaporation. Use clamp with stand to hold the glass tube straight. After sometime we will find that the level of coloured water into the glass tube has risen. The root pressure pushes the coloured water in the tube and causes it to rise.



                                      Class  8   CH – 1(OS & GUI) - Roles and Functions  

                                                                              1.      Tick the correct answer.

a.       User Interface

b.      Hard Disk

c.       Interface

d.      Booting

e.       Device driver

f.        Multiprocessing

g.       Solaris

2.      True and False.

a.       T

b.      F(does not /does)

c.       T

d.      T

e.       F(Novell’s Netware/BOSS)

f.        T

g.       T

h.      F(Difficult /easy)

3.      Fill in the blanks.

a.       Bridge

b.      Warm boot

c.       Mac OS X

d.      Multiuser

e.       Stand alone

f.        Server

g.       Command

h.      Touch

4.      Define the following

a.       Multitasking OS – A multitasking operating system allows a single user to work on two or more applications that reside in memory at the same time.

b.      Multiprocessing OS – A multiprocessing operating system can support two or more processors that run programs at the same time.

c.       Real time OS – A real time operating system (RTOS) is an operating system that guarantees to work within a specified time limit.

d.      Distributed OS – A distributed operating system is a network –based operating system which is carried out on more than one machine.



5.      Answer in 1-2 sentences.

a.      What is a Software ?

   Ans.  Software consists of a series of related instructions, organized for a common purpose,   that tells the computer what tasks to perform and how to perform.

b.      What is the role of Operating System ?

Ans. Operating system acts as an interface between a user and the hardware. It also hides the complexity of the hardware from the user.

c.       How many categories of Operating system are used ? Name them

Ans. There are three basic categories of Operating System .

1. Stand- alone Operating System.

2. Server Operating System.

3. Embedded Operating System.

d. Differentiate between Stand-alone OS and Server OS .



                     Stand-alone OS


                                 Server OS


1.       An operating system that works on a desktop computer or notebook computer is called a stand-alone operating system.

2.       Examples- MAC OS X, LINUX.


1.       A Server operating system is an operating system that is designed specifically to support a network.

2.       Examples- LINUX,UNIX, SOLARIS.


 e.   What is a User Interface?

 Ans. A User Interface controls how you enter data and instructions as well as the display of information on the screen.

e.      How many types of User Interface are used ? Name the

f.          Ans. Two types of user interface are there .

1.       Command Line Interface (CLI)         2. Graphical User Interface(GUI)

       g. Differentiate between CUI and GUI.







1.       In a CUI , a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data.

2.       Example- DOS (Disk Operating System)


1.       In a GUI, we interact with menus, icons and etc. to issue commands.

2.       Example- Mac OS, Ubuntu.


6.      Answer Briefly

a.      What are the functions of operating system ? Explain any three.

Ans.  The functions of operating system are :

1.       Processor Management- Processor management means managing the program or programs running on the processor at a given time.

2.       Memory Management- The purpose of memory management is to optimize use of Random Access Memory (RAM).

3.       User Interface- A user interface controls how we enter data and instruction as well as the display of information on the screen.


b.      Name some popular server operating systems. Define them.

Ans. Some popular server operating system are:

1.       WINDOWS SERVER- Developed by Microsoft, Windows Server enables  organizations to manage applications and websites.

2.       SOLARIS- It is a version of UNIX , developed by Sun Microsystems designed for e-commerce applications.

3.       NOVELL’S NETWARE- It is a server operating system , designed for client/server networks.

4.       BHARAT OPERATING SYSTEM SOLUTIONS(BOSS)- It is an easy- to- use version of Linux, developed by C-DAC, India.

c.       What is an Embedded  Operating  System ? Give some examples.

Ans. The Operating system on mobile devices and many consumer electronics is called a Mobile operating system or Embedded operating system. These operating systems reside in the ROM chips. It includes calendar , contact management, text messaging, email, Touch screen , digital camera, media player and wireless connectivity such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.

 d.      What are the basic principles while designing User Interface?

Ans.  The  basic principles while designing User Interface are :

1.       User familiarity – The interface should be based on user-oriented terms and concepts rather than computer concepts.

2.       Consistency- The system should display an appropriate level of consistency.

3.       Recoverability-The system should provide some flexibility to user errors and allow the user to recover from errors.

4.       User guidance- Some user guidance such as help system, on-line manuals, etc should be supplied.

5.       User diversity- The interface should provide appropriate interaction facilities for different types of system user.


e.      What are the advantages of CLI?

Ans. 1. The user is in direct communication with the computer.

        2.  The user is not restricted to a number of predetermined options.

        3.  It is possible to alter computer configuration settings.

        4. Working on CLI is fast.

f. Write down the characteristics Of GUI.

Ans. 1. Windows: Multiple windows allow different information to be displayed simultaneously on the user’s screen.

2.  Icons: Icons display different types of information. Some icons represent files while others represent processes.


3. Menus: Command are selected from a menu rather than typed in a command language.


4. Pointing: A pointing device such as a mouse is used for selecting choices from menu

5. Graphics: Graphical elements can be mixed with text on the same display.


Class 8  English language

Insert  the correct tense of verbs in each of the following sentences :

(1)   I told him why I …. that . (do) (2) The teacher asked boys whether they ….. the sums. (solve)  (3) I shall go home during the vacation so that I …... my brother. (see) (4)My son’s health was so bad last year that he failed …. the examination .(take) (5)When I …. him last , I spoke to him .(see)(6)Although they ….. defeated , they did not lose heart. (be)  (7)He tried how fast he … walk .(can) (8) Our teacher taught us that virtue …. its own reward .(be) (9) Our holy books tell us that man …  mortal .(be) (10) He eats that he … live. (may) (11) He spoke so fast that I ….. not follow him .(can) (12) Just as I …. the room , the bell rang .(enter) (13) Who told you that goats … on grass ?(live) (14) I shall fire if you …. . (speak) (15) He heard that the cottage …. for sale. (be) (16) His health has improved since he …. from  the hills. (return) (17) Do whatever you …. proper. (think) (18) It is clear that he …. a  clever boy. (be) (19) The news  that the enemey …. approaching alarmed the people. (be) (20) This is the place where Martin …. . (live) (21) He kept quiet that he …. please me.(may) (22) He would succeed if he …. . (try) (23) A great building stood where there …. a cottage now . (be) (24) However poor a man …. be, he has always something to be thankful for.(may) (25) He declared that he …. not believe  it even if he saw it with his own eyes.(will) 


1.       did 2. had solved  3. can see 4. to take 5. saw 6. were 7. could 8.is 9. is 10. may  11. could  12. entered13.live14.speak15.was16.returned17.think18.is19.was20.lived21.might22.tries23.was24.may25.would




Heading   :     Must be appropriate to the event                                                                                    1 mark

Date         :                                                                                                                                             ½ mark

Time      :                                                                                                                                                ½  mark

Venue      :     Hall/auditorium+ Location Eg. Sandra Hall, St Lawrence School                            ½ + ½ Mark                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

Name  of event   :  War with words (Inter school debate)                                                                      1 mark                                                                                                                                                                

For whom ?   Detail of audience ,invitiees  eg. Pupils from class 8 to 10                                               1 mark

Example :You are the  Secretary  of the children’s club of your society. You are planning to celebrate Diwali mela  in your locality. Write a notice to be put up on the notice board of your society giving details about the event.                                                                                                                                           


                                                THE COLOURS OF CULTURE

                                                Grand Diwali  Mela

The Children’s Club of the society is organizing Diwali Mela .Details are as follows:

                                                Venue: Community Hall

                                                Date: 15th Ocotober 2020

                                                Time: 9am to 2 pm

                                                Stall Charges: RS 2000/-

There will be a short cultural programme to showcase the talents of children. All the members of the society are cordially invited to participate in the Mela

A sumptuous lunch awaits you.

Class 8  English Lit.




ANS 1) The message Recalled to life means brought back to life. This message refers to Dr. Manette who was in France and was recently released from prison. His daughter Lucie Manette thought he had been dead for the past eighteen years but he was still alive and had forgotten his past life. Slowly and slowly Jarvis Lorry and Lucie recalled him to life.

ANS 2) the story took place in the year 1775 . At that time England and France were undergoing a period of social turmoil. The people used to wear loose cloths and avoid wearing tight clothes. They felt themselves very comfortable in the loose dresses.

ANS 3) one or two centuries ago our country was under the rule of Britishers. The condition of Indians was very pathetic because the Britishers  were very cruel and unjust. Yes, I would like to have life then and sacrifice my life to free my country.


ANS 1) In the year 1775 social events brought destruction in two cities that is London and Paris. In both the cities the prosperity of the ruling class increased and the same way the poverty of underprivileged. The king and Queen in both the cities turned a blind eye to the hardships of the people.

ANS 2)  When it was revealed to Miss Manette that her father was alive and was in France she lost her balance. Mr Lorry consoled her by saying that it was not easy for him to handle these emotional matters as he was he was a man of business.

ANS 3) Lucie Manette was brought up as an orphan. Her father had been dead for the last eighteen years but when Mr Lorry told her that he was still alive and had been in the prison for last eighteen years. This news was really shocking for her, she said its cant be true and going to meet the ghost of her father.           


8 th (Physics)  MATTER       

15.  We feel comfortable under a fan in summer. Why? Ans. We feel comfortable under the fan in summer because when we perspire, the running fan makes the perspiration evaporate, thereby causing cooling. It happens because circulating air sweeps up the perspiration and also takes heat out of it.

16.  Write the name of the process in the given box.

1.    a liquid changes into a solid.  Freezing 

2.    liquid changes into vapour.Vapourisation     

3.    a solid directly changes into a gaseous state on heating.


17.    List the properties of the   particles of matter. Ans. The properties of matter are as follows:

1.  Matter is made up of very-very small particles namely atoms and molecules.

2.  There are many empty spaces between particles of matter.

3.  There are attractive forces among atoms or molecules called intermolecular forces.

4.  All the particles have kinetic energy which varies depending on the temperature of the sample of the matter.

5.  The temperature of a substance indicates average kinetic energy of the particles.

6.  A change in state may occur when the energy of the particles is changed.


18.    Why do gases exert pressure?

Ans. Gases exert pressure because in gases the molecules are free to move in all directions at high speed . Due to their movement they collide with each other, hence exert pressure.

19.    A gas fills the containing vessel fully.why? Ans. Particles of the gases are loosely packed. The inter-particle attractive forces are negligible in the case of gases.Particle of a gas can move in all directions and fill the required space quickly.

20.    Why does the temperature remain constant during melting of ice?

Ans. The temperature remains constant during the melting of ice because of latent heat of fusion as the heat energy is required only to change the state by keeping the temperature constant.

21.    Temperature remains constant during boiling of a liquid. Why?

Ans. Temperature remains constant during boiling of a liquid because of latent heat of vaporization, the absorbed heat energy does not change the kinetic energy of the particle, thereby not changing the temperature.

22.    List the factors affecting evaporation.

Ans. The factors affecting evaporation are:

1.  Temperature

2.  Nature of liquid

3.  Surface area

4.  Circulation of air

5.  Humidity

23.    Why is water sprinkled on a roof during a hot summer day?

Ans. Water is sprinkled on a roof during a hot summer day because it gives a cooling effect due to evaporation.

24.    Why does evaporation cause cooling?

Ans. When a substance evaporates it takes away heat from the surrounding, thereby making the surrounding cool.

25.    Why do naphthalene balls disappear when kept in air for some days? 

Ans. Naphthalene balls disappear when kept in air for some days due to sublimation. 




1Q- What are the three states of matter?

Ans- Solids ,liquids and gases.


2Q- Arrange solids,liquids and gases in order of increasing intermolecular space.

Ans- Solids < liquids < gases.


3Q- Arrange the solids,liquids and gases in order of increasing intermolecular forces.

Ans- Gases < liquids < solids.


4Q- What will happen to the kinetic energy of a particle if it is heated?

Ans- The kinetic energy of the particles increases if it is heated.


5Q- What gives rise to the pressure of a gas?

Ans- The collision of the particles with the walls of the vessels give rise to the pressure of the gas.


6Q- In which state of matter do the particles move the longest distances?

Ans- Gaseous state of matter.



1Q- Explain the melting of ice on the basis of the kinetic theory.

Ans- The particles constituting an ice only vibrate about their mean positions. As an ice is heated, the K.E of the particles increases. With the rising temperature, the particles vibrate more and more vigorously till they move away from their fixed positions at a particular temperature called the melting point of the ice. Thus, an ice becomes a liquid (water).


2Q- Explain the evaporation of a liquid on the basis of the kinetic theory.

Ans-  The particles in a liquid are in continuous motion, during which they collide among themselves. If they collide strongly, some of the particles may overcome the attractive forces and may escape from the surface. A liquid evaporates in  this manner.


3Q- Explain the liquification of a gas on the basis of the kinetic theory.

Ans- In the gaseous state, the particles move very fast, independently of each other. As the temperature is lowered, kinetic energy of the particles is also lowered. When the low energy gaseous particles collide with each other, they may form bigger lumps or clusters and the gas may condense into a liquid.


4Q- Explain the freezing of a liquid on the basis of the kinetic theory.

Ans- As a liquid is cooled, the kinetic energy of the particles decreases. The particles move shorter and shorter distances as the temperature is lowered. At the freezing point, the translatory motion of the particles ceases and the particles get rigidly fixed. This is how a liquid changes into a solid.


5Q- State the law of conservation of mass.

Ans- According to the law of conservation of mass, “ Matter can neither be created nor be destroyed but can be changed from one form to another form and the total mass of the substances before and after the change remains same”.


6Q- Describe an experiment to prove the law of conservation of mass.

Ans- Put a small tube or bottle containing a solution of barium chloride into a conical flask. Put some sodium sulphate solution in the flask with  the help of a dropper carefully, ensuring that the two substances do not come in contact with each other. Close the mouth of the flask with a cork and weigh the flask. Tilt the flask and swirl for sometime and weigh it again. You will find that there is no change in the weight of the flask.




Ans 1) People become so excited when someone was about to be hanged as they wished to see public execution .They were bloodthirsty and were wild with excitement as Charles Darnay charged with treason-spying for French-was certain to be found guilty and therefore condemned to death.They had excessive interest in human suffering which served as a mean of entertainment   to them.

Ans 2) Sydney Carton had a great potential but had fallen into the life of alcoholism. He serves as a legal advisor to Stryver and looks remarkably like Charles Darnay. His erratic behaviour surprised Darnay when Darnay tries to thank him for his assistance in the trial. Darnay is polite gentleman on the other hand Carton is ill mannered and heavy drinker. So we don’t like him.

Ans 3) A friend should be good adviser, compassionate and honest. He must take care of one’s feelings and behaviour accordingly. He should never reveal secrets and remain faithful. He must standby his friends during odd times.



Ans1) In the court room Miss lucy was also present with her father and Jarvis Lorry. Dr Manette was having a stunned expression on his face and was looking very distinguished gentleman with strikingly with white hair. But when his daughter addressed him, his expression was softened and it appears as if he was too young and was proud to have his daughter.

Ans2) Sydney Carton says these words to Charles Darnay. He is an orphan who has wasted his life on alcohol. He proves to be complex character who has no real purpose in life and does not seem to be in the good looks of anyone.

Ans3) These words were spoken by Mr Stryver to Sydney Carton. He said that he felt sorry for Carton because earlier in student life, he used to be much better at law than Stryver. But now he working under Stryver and earning a clerk’s wage. He felt sympathy for him.


English language Class 8  A Comprehensive Grammar Of Current English

 Chapter17 - The Participle


1.       Seeing: present participle: used to express an earlier action of subject. 2.Being disappointed :present participle; used to  express an earlier action of subject.3. Haunted: past participle: used as adjective, qualifies house.4. Rolling : present participle, used as adjective, qualifies sstone5. Being occupied: present participle used to express earlier action of subject.6.Being closed: present participle, used to express an earlier action of subject.7. Irritated : past participle, used to express an earlier action 8. Transferred : past participle, qualifies noun: collector.9.Arriving: present participle,  qualifies noun: train. 10.Having finished: perfect participle, used to express an earlier action. 11. Being fine: present  participle, used to form absolute phrase.   12. Crying: present participle, used as object complement of child.  13. Killed: past participle, used as object complement of lion. 14. Seizing: present participle, used to qualify noun people. 15. Taking: present participle, used to express an action of the subject


1.Starting in the morning, we arrived at midnight. 2. We met a boy carrying a heavy bag. 3. Taking pity upon him, I gave him some money. 4. Decorated with lights, the house looked beautiful. 5. Seeing the policeman, the robbers  ran away.6. The answer being known to her, Monika put up her hand. 7. Finding the door open, I went inside. 8. The police saw the body floating down the river. 9. While reading the paper, he ate his breakfast. 10. Having felt hungry, he went on eating. 11. Having reached home, they went to bed immediately. 12. Having won a lottery, he bought a car.


1.Mr. Sale being the only candidate,I appointed him to the post. 2. While sitting on the grass, he was bitten by a snake. 3. It being a very cold day, I remained in bed.4. Meeting me in the club, my friend told me everything. 5. Going up the hill, they saw an old grave. 6. Observing that the canal was rising, a gang of labourers was sent for. 7. On hearing that there was a vacancy, an application was sent by me. 8. On joining the post immediately he was rewarded by them.


Exercise 1

1.       To  see, qualifies the verb :have come 2. To drink, qualifies the noun : water 3. To live, qualifies the verb: eat.4. To read, used as subject of the sentence. 5. To play, used as object of the word  ‘like’. 6. To err, qualifies the adjective human. 7.  To learn, qualifies the adjective anxious. 8. Sing, qualifies the verb heard. 9. To advice, qualifies the adjective easy. 10. To help, qualifies the adjective willing. 11. To tell the truth, qualifies the sentence. 12. To win, qualifies the verb wish. 13. To sit, qualifies the noun chair. 14. To accept, qualifies adjective honest. 15. To be, qualifies the verb appears.  16. To obey, object of the preposition  But. 17. To eat, qualifies something. 18. Learn, qualifies the verb helped. 19. To leave, object of preposition About. 20. To go, qualifies the verb : was told.

Exercise 2

1.       They worked hard to learn. 2. He was sensible enough to do the right thing. 3. The problem is too difficult for the students to solve. 4. The is too long to be finished today. 5. The school appoints Rex to teach Geography. 6. We go to cinema hall to see a movie. 7. To tell it frankly, I have no interest in business. 8. These men held a meeting to select a manager for the factory. 9. The man  took out a pistol to frighten all of us. 10. To collect the old stamps is Pamela’s hobby.



1.ordered,  felt 2. Wondered, had done, had lent 3.did, could, was 4. Could not cook, had 5. Had done,   did  not  deserve 6. Ran , was 7. Inferred, said, was 8. Was, was 9. Took, was 10. Felt,  saw  11. Could, would 12. Came, began 13. Ate , rang 14. Rode , saw, were 15. Behaved, talked, remained, thought, kept, tried.


1.bind, hold 2. Chooses, finds 3.dreams,attempts 4. Knows, cannot 5. Guard,may 6. Gives, may 7. Comes, has 8. Bellow, finds, are  9.promises,will be, expresses 10.talks,has 11.heard 12.will, can 13. Gives 14. Calls, finds, has gone 15. Is washed,flock,can


1.       Has gained 2.carried out 3.are waiting 4. Placed 5.was lying 6. Went 7.repaired 8. Lay 9.had gone 10. Lay,flowed


1.       Left 2. Matriculated3. Was 4. Made 5. Came 6. Has gone 7. Sat 8. Had been 9. Had reached 10. Did not 11. Do  12.frizen



(a)1.of 2. In  3. to  4.  to   5.on 6. With 7. To 8. With  9. With 10. For

(b)1.of,with 2. Of 3.from,to 4. In, of 5. Of 6. In 7. Out 8. Of 9. Of 10.with

(c)1. for 2. Of, at , in 3. With 4. For 5. To, for 6. With, over 7. To 8. To 9. In 10.with

(d)1. with 2. For 3. To 4. To 5. In 6. Of 7. Of 8. For 9. On 10. To

(e)1.in 2. For 3. To 4. Of 5. On 6. To 7. On 8. Amongst/with 9.at 10. For


(a)1.for  2. On 3. For,to 4. To, of 5. Over

(b)1.by 2.to 3. About 4. Of, against 5. With,of

(c)1.to,of,in 2. Of, about 3. For 4. Into 5. By

(d)1.to 2. To 3. By/from 4. To 5. To 6. Into 7. To 8. From 9. For 10. With


(a)1.with,out to ,to , of (b)with, of, to ,up (c)of, to, with, of, at, of, in (d)to, to,on,


(a)1.on,into 2. Before, in from 3. Besides 4.with 5. At, in 6. Between 7. Among

(b)1.since 2. From, till 3.for 4. By


1.about, of 2. Over, about 3. For 4. To 5. Of 6. At/about, with 7. To, by, to 8. Under,to 9. To 10. With 11. To with, about/on, for, to 12. To, of 13. For, with 14. To 15. To, in 16. By, of  17. For  18. With, to, in 19. For,for,of,of 20. About, of



I.1.and: co-ordinating conjunction 2. Before: subordinating conjunction 3.and:co-ordinating,threrfore:co-ordinating conjunction 4. Unless: subordinating 5. Neither…….nor: co-ordinating conjunction

II.(wrong words) 1.or 2.not only lost 3.when 4. Than 5. Like 6. Like 7. Does not invite 8. But, yet 9. Until 10. Do not tell


1.       As 2.because 3.for 4.though 5.but 6.since 7.lest 8.so that 9.although 10.till

II.1.take care of yourself or you will die.2.He deserted his brother as he was very proud. 3.You must do as you are told otherwise you will be punished. 4.Though he tried to get up,he could not. 5. The policeman ran after the thief but he could not catch him. 6. You may not be successful , still, you ought to attempt the question.7.All men were againstDr. Johnson;nevertheless,hepersevered.8.He as well as you are honest. 9. If you send me a message, I will come at once. 10. Lead me anywhere and I shall  go.



1.     Tick the correct answer.

a.      Excel

b.      Cell

c.       Formula

d.      Cell Reference

e.      Comparison

f.        Relative

2.     True and False.

a.      True

b.      False(2/3)

c.       True

d.      False(+/=)

e.      True

f.        True

3.     Fill in the blanks.

a.      Spreadsheet

b.      Rows and Columns

c.       Labels, Values and Formulas

d.      Formula

e.      Parentheses()

f.        Autofill

g.      Constant

4.     Define the following.

a.      Cell Reference- Every cell in a worksheet has a unique address, called cell reference. By default, cells are identified by a specific column letter and row number.

b.      Cell Range- A group of selected or related cells in a worksheet is called a cell range. Selected cells are highlighted on our screen.

c.       Operator- A formula can contain one or more operators. An operator specifies the type of calculation we want to perform.


5.     Answer in 1-2 sentences.

a.      How many rows and columns are there in a worksheet?

Ans: Excel worksheet has 1048576 number of rows and 16384 columns.

b.      How do we switch between worksheets?

Ans: We can switch to another worksheet in a workbook by clicking worksheet tabs.

c.       What are the two different types of data present in Excel?

Ans: Constants and Formulas are two different types of data present in Excel.

d.      What are Operators?

Ans: A formula can contain one or more operators. An operator specifies the type of calculation we want to perform. Examples- Arithmetic operators, Comparison operators etc.

e.      What do you mean by ‘Order of calculation’?

Ans: When a formula contains more than one operator, Excel performs the calculations in a specific order. We can use parentheses () to change the order in which Excel performs calculations.

6.     Answer Briefly.

a.      What do you mean by a spreadsheet program?

Ans:  Spreadsheet is a program that allows us to organize data, complete calculations, represent data in graphs, and develop reports. Microsoft Excel is a powerful spreadsheet program. Excel allows us to organize data in rows and columns. These rows and columns are collectively called a worksheet. A spreadsheet file is called a workbook, which have many individual worksheets. On each worksheet, data is organized vertically in columns and horizontally in rows. Each worksheet in Excel 2010 has 16384 columns and 1048576 rows.

b.      What is a formula? How is it useful in Excel?

Ans: A Formula is a sequence of values, cell references, names of functions or operators (+,-,*,/, etc.) that produces a new value from existing values. In other words, formula is used to calculate numerical information and display the resulting value in a cell. We can use formulas to perform all kinds of calculations in our Excel data. For examples, we can add the contents of a column of monthly sales figures to calculate the totals sales.

c.       Defines the different types of operators with examples.

Ans: A formula can contain one or more operators. An operator specifies the type of calculation we want to perform. There are different types of operators. These are

1.      Arithmetic Operators- we can use arithmetic operators to perform mathematical calculations.









2.      Comparison Operators- We can use comparison operators to compare two values. Comparison operators return a value of TRUE or FALSE.




         Equal to


         Greater than


         Less than

3.      Reference Operators- The reference operators combine two cell ranges to create a single joint reference.










d.      Differentiate between relative and absolute referencing.


                Relative referencing

          Absolute Referencing


1.      The formula using the relative cell reference adjusts the cell reference as it copies to the destination area.

2.      Example- C5 is a relative cell reference.


1.      The formula using the absolute cell reference keeps the cell reference constant (absolute) in the formula as it copies it to the destination area.

2.      Example- $C$5 is an absolute cell reference.


e.      What is Mixed referencing? Explain with example

Ans.  A cell reference with only one  dollar sign ($) before either the column or the row is called a mixed cell reference. When it shows C$5, the column reference changes when we copy this cell to another column because it is relative. The row reference does not change because it is absolute. When it shows $C5, the column reference does not change because it is absolute. The row reference changes when we copy this cell reference to another row because it is relative. 


English Language  Class 8   Book –A comprehensive grammar of  current English Chapter 40 Transformation of sentences

Exercise 1

Part (a) and (b) are already done

Part c :

1.    As soon as he opened the letter  , he started the  weeping  .Or Hardly had he opened the letter when he started weeping. 2 As soon as he appeared on the stage , clapping started in the  hall. Or  Hardly had he  appeared on the stage when the clapping started in the hall. 3 As soon as it was said , it was done. 4 As soon as the captain ordered , the soldiers started firing. Or Hardly had the Captain ordered when the soldiers started firing. 5As soon as I reached home, it started raining. Or Hardly had  I reached home  when it started raining.

[Changing patterns :No sooner + helping verb + subject + main verb + object + than +subject + main verb + object . To remove no sooner  we can write the sentence in two different forms i.e to begin with as soon as or hardly …… when .These type of sentences are the combinations of Principal clause and Subordinate clause. In case of no sooner the part of the sentence after ‘ than’ is called the principal clause  , the same way  in case of hardly the part of sentence after ‘when’ is called the principal clause and same in case of as soon as after comma . so  this part never changes in any form of  the sentence . the change occurs only in subordinate clause i.e before than when or comma. We do not add any helping verb just after   ‘as soon as ‘  that we do while starting the sentence with no sooner or hardly.]

Exercise 2. Change the degree of comparison

 1 An ass is not as intelligent as a horse.(When comparison is between two things persons places etc the sentence can be written either in positive degree or comparative degree.)2 A foolish friend is not as good as a wise enemy.3 (a) No other sea port in India is as good as  Mumbai.(B) Mumbai is better than all other sea ports in India.[As the comparison of Mumbai is with all other sea ports therefore it can be written in all the three degrees .]4 Disraeli was greater than all other statesmen in England.(b) No other statesman in England was as great  as Disraeli.5 Hoshiarpur id more fertile than most other  districts .(b) Hoshiarpur is one of the most fertile districts.[As few districts are equally fertile as Hoshiarpur  therefore it can also be written as in all the three degrees by using ‘most other ‘ districts  in comparative and ‘one of the’ most fertile districts in superlative degree ]6 Ther are few poets as great as Kalidasa . (b) Kalidasa is greater than most other poets. Dickens’ ‘David Copperfield’ is more popular than most other books .(b)Dickens’ ‘David Cooperfield’ is one of the most popular books . 8 Gold is more precious than most other metals .(b) Very few  metals are as precious as gold. 9 To act is not as as easy as to speak. 10 A motor car does not run as fast as the bullet train. 11 I do not know  you as well as he does . 12He does not know me as well as he does you. 13 No other man is as mean as he is .(b) He is meaner than all other man . 14Let us see who runs faster  than all others . 15 Nobody else does his work as honestly as he does.

(b)He does his work most honestly.16 Macaulay writes more graphically than most other historians. (b)  Macaulay is one of the historians who write most graphically. 17 Jack does not ball as fast as John. Ashoka was nobler than most other Indian kings .(b) Very few Indian kings were as noble as Ashoka.19 A dead lion is not as good as a live ass.20 None of his companions seemed as cheerful as Jim.(b) Jim seemed to be the most cheerful of all his companions .

Exercise 3 Substitute the verb form for the words italicized :(change of nouns to verbs)

(a)1The sectary did not reply for a few days.2 He accepted all that we proposed.3His song did not amused me.4This appears to be a sound proposal.5 I believe he does not mean what he says.6 Keats loved poetry .7This pencil costs one rupee.8 I will be  engaged at four o’clock.9  I did not intend to do it.10He did not hope to succeed  in his effort.11His request for money was refused.12The Mayor was not invited.13That was not she meant.14 It did not appear  to be a village no longer.

(b)                        Substituting the noun form :(Change of verbs to noun)

1He neglected the choice of a good seat for himself.2The fairy has a resemblance to a flower.3We can learn everything at ease.4 I did it as per your desire.5  I am sorry for the rudeness he showed to your father.6H e has faith in his innocence . 7 Have you received the approval of your father for your choice ?8 I have no intension of staying here during the the vacation. 9 He has intelligence enough to see through the game.10 He works with such patience and diligence that he is sure to win the prize.11 I found to my great astonishment that the village was no longer visible.12 The member  offered an apology to the chairman for his remarks.13 The villagers were given a warning about the flood.14 Christmas is a time for  merriment.15 A snake is a reptile its ungratefulness .


   (C) Substituting the adjective form of words: (Change of adverbs  to adjectives )

1 It was fortunate that we were well armed to repel the attack.2 Frances Bacon was remarkably   industrious and intelligent.3 He is proud of his wealth.4 It is probable that the sub committee is not going to meet today.5 To be healthy is to be wealthy.6  It is unusual   that he is such a fast runner.7 It was easy  for me to get the job if I tried.8 He who shirks labour will not be prosperous.9 King Lear was not courageous enough  to write to Cordelia.10 The children proved very troublesome. 11 It is possible that there will be a sandstorm today.12 I am sure that this was his native village.13 One of the soldiers was very strong.14 Being poor made him a thoughtful boy . 15 It is obvious that the minister will be re- elected.

Exercise -d  Substitute the adverb form of the words : ( Change of adjectives to adverbs )

1The lawyer examined the documents very carefully.2 You behaved insolently  and impertinently.3 Regan spoke harshly and severely.4 He hates his neighbour  particularly.5 Suddenly Hamlet appeared on the scene .6 The accused did not do that injury intentionally.7 Lincoln acted courageously and patiently.8 They lived together in their place peacefully and happily.9 The slaves were beaten mercilessly . 10 Had she loved him sincerely , he would not have given her up.              

 11 Flowers grow abundantly in the garden. 12 He applied himself to his work so thoroughly that soon he won the admiration of all.13 I kept quiet purposely .14 Let us depart peacefully. 15 Certainly he is not going to attempt the meeting.16 Burke repeated his speech eloquently.  


8 class History – Chapter No.1. A Period of Transition


I.            Tick the correct answer:

1.    Who discovered America in CE 1492?

a) Eli Whitney                       b) Christopher Columbus

c) Amerigo Vespucci            d) Fedinand Magellan

2.    Who invented the “Spinning Jenny”?

a) James Watt                        b) George Stephenson

c) Hargreaves                         d) Arkwright

3.    Which of the following is not a characteristic of the Renaissance?

a) Rationalism                       b) Humanism

c) Putting-out system            d) Scientific Spirit

4.    When was the Steam Engine invented?

a) CE 1785                            b) CE 1793

c) CE 1769                                      d) CE 1815

5.    What does the word ‘laissez Faire’ mean?

a) Rebirth                               b) Sphere of influences

c) Let us alone                       d) Voyages of discovery


1.    (b)

2.    (c)

3.    (c)

4.    (c)

5.    (c)

II.            Fill in the blanks:

1.    The Renaissance thinkers believed in the life in the __________.

2.    The term Reformation refers to two major developments, the ________ and the _________.

3.    Vasco-da-Gama reached ___________ on the west coast of India.

4.    The Industrial Revolution began in England in about ________

5.    In 1793, Eli Whitney invented a _____________


1.    World

2.    Protestant, counter reformation

3.    Calicut

4.    CE 1750

5.    cottongin


III.            Match column A with Column B

1.    John Kay                                         a) Mule

2.    James Hargreaves                           b) Cotton gin

3.    Arkwright                                        c) Power loom

4.    Samuel Crompton                          d) Steam engine

5.    Cartwright                                       e) Water frame

6.    Whitney                                           f) Spinning Jenny

7.    James Watt                                      g) Flying Shuttle


1.    (g)

2.    (f)

3.    (e)

4.    (a)

5.    (c)

6.    (b)

7.    (d)


IV.            State whether the following statements are True or False

1.    The Renaissance and the Reformation alongwith new voyages ushered in the Modern Age.

2.    The Industrial Revolution began in Germany.

3.    McAdam devised railway tracks.

4.    The Rise of capitalism and imperialism can be attributed to the Industrial Revolution.

5.    The East India Company gradually became rulers from being traders.

6.    Martin Luther led the Reformation Movement.


1.    True

2.    False

3.    False

4.    True

5.    True

6.    True

V.            Answer the following questions briefly.

1.    How did the Renaissance, Reformation and the new geographical discoveries lead to the Modern Age?

2.    Give reasons why the industrial Revolution first began in England.


4.    Discuss the impact of the Industrial Revolution on society, economy and polity.

5.    What is imperialism? Discuss the factors which led to the rise of imperialism.

6.    Describe the general impact of imperialism with special reference to South Asia.


1.    on pg no 11

Chapter at a glance points of Reformation and Renaissance

2.     on page no 10, Points to remember (Point no 3) full

3.    on page no 7 Impact of Industrial Revolution.

Star from (1) (The Industrial upto world wars)

(2) (The Industrial upto production)

4.    on page no 8, 9 (both)


Start from the upto colony (in blue color)

then causes of Rise Imperializing

only points 1, 2, 3 on page no 8 and 4, 7, 9 on page no 9

5.     page no 10

Ist column 2nd paragraph (the east- upto of india)

3rd Paragraph (SriLanka – upto British)

2nd Column (fram upto empire)


VI.            Give Reasons.

1.    Most of the countries in South Asia became colonies of Europe.

2.    New inventions and discoveries led to the Industrial Revolution.


1.    on page no 9

2nd coloumn >> Impact on south Asia

Most of the ____ upto ____ world.

Political instability

Lack of economic values

2.    on page no 4

2nd coumn >> The Industrial Revolution >> 3rd Paragraph >> (after 1750 new inventions upto over the world.)


Class 8 Biology - Chapter-The nervous system


A.Fill in the blanks

(a)Axon hillock

(b) neurotransmitter

(c) neuromuscular junction

(d) mixed

(e) cerebrum

(f) hindbrain

(g) cell body

(h) hypothalamus

(i) cranial

(j) reflex action


B. Choose the correct option









C. Match the following












D. Answer the following

1.Nervous and endocrine system control and co-ordinate the various activities of the body.


2. Neurone is made up of a cyton, dendrites and an axon.the dendrites carry messages towards the cyton and the axon carries messages away from the cyton.The junction of the axon of one neurone and one or more dendrites of another is called a synapse.


3. The sensory neurones carry messages from various parts of the body to the central nervous system while the motor neurones carry messages from the central nervous system to the effector organs.


4. A synapse between a motor neurone and a muscle fibre is called a neuromuscular junction.


5. Nerves are cable like structures made up of bundles of axons. Is no was covered by a layer of connective tissue and has several blood vessels within it.


6. The three type of nerves are

(a)Sensory neurons

(b)Motor neurons

(c)Mixed neurons


7. The cerebral spinal fluid filled cavities within the brain are called ventricles.


8.The midbrain connects the forebrain to the hind brain and spinal cord,and controls eye adjustments.


9.peripheral nervous system consist of the nerves which arise from the brain and spinal cord. It comprises 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves.the peripheral nervous system has two components the somatic or voluntary nervous system and autonomic or involuntary nervous system.


10. The sympathetic nervous system raises the level of an organ's activity during stress or danger while the parasympathetic nervous system decreases organ's activity.


E.Explain in brief

1. An axon carries impulses away from the cyton. When an impulse reaches the end of an axon,it stimulates the release of certain chemicals called neurotransmitters.The neurotransmitters diffuse across a synapse to stimulate the dendrites of the next neuron. The cyton of this neurone generates an impulse in response to the neurotransmitters, which is carried along its axon in the same manner.In this way an impulse travel from one neuron to another.



(a)Cerebrum--controls learning, speech, memory, emotion, reasoning, voluntary activities, response to pain and temperature, and the senses.

(b)Hypothalamus--control endocrine system and emotions.



The the cell bodies of most of the neurones are located in the upper layers of the cerebral hemisphere giving these layers a great appearance so the cell bodies are called green matter.



The axons of these neurons form bundles that appear white and are thus called white matter. White matter is mostly found in the deeper parts of the cerebrum.


4. The parts of hindbrain and their functions are as follows

1 Cerebellum:-coordinates body movement, posture and balance, helps in learning new movements.

2 Pons:-conveys message from the fore brain to the cerebellum, helps control sleep, breathing, swallowing, bladder function, eye movement,facial expressions.

3 Medulla oblongata:-it controls involuntary actions.


5.Diagram is on page no.70 fig.5.7

Function:-The spinal cord relays messages to and from the brain through nerves.


6. Reflex action is an autonomic response to stimulus requiring swift action.

For example:-we instantly blink when strong light is flashed in our eyes.





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